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基于社会网络中心性模型的城市公园公交可达性研究——以哈尔滨道里区为例
赵晓龙,杨洋,朱逊*,卞晴
0
()
摘要:
在国家优先发展公共交通的政策引导下,如何优化城市公园布局与公交网络的空间关系,提高公园的公交可达性,成为城市建设过程中所面临的现实课题。首先,依据公交站点与城市公园入口100m空间距离,将其划分为接入点与连接点,依据相同路线的公交线路数量构建邻接矩阵,初步确立了公交网络结构模型。其次,从可达性和连接性2个方面提取了公交网络中心性模型的4个自变量因子,其中表征可达性的度数中心度、接近中心度和中间中心度3个自变量因子,定量反映了城市公园在公交网络中的区位条件;其中表征连接性的聚类系数,定量反映了公交连接点与接入点的连接程度。然后,通过自变量因子权重赋值,建构了公交网络中心性模型,依此量化评估城市公园的公交可达性。最后,应用公交网络中心性模型,结合哈尔滨道里区公交站线与10个建成公园现状进行实证研究,提出了在公交中心性空洞区合理规划公交站点及线路,而在公交中心性高值区增补城市公园的对策,以此促进公交网络与城市公园布局的空间耦合关系,提高城市公园的公交可达性,使其发挥更大的综合效益。
关键词:  风景园林  社会网络分析法  城市公园  公交中心性模型  可达性
DOI:
基金项目:
Bus Accessibility Research Based on Social Network Centricity Model of Urban Parks—The Case Study of Harbin Daoli District
ZHAO Xiaolong,YANG Yang,ZHU Xun,BIAN Qing
()
Abstract:
Under the guidance of national policy that public transport development should be prioritized, how to optimize the spatial relationship between urban parks layout and public transportation network and improve bus accessibility to parks have become a realistic subject in the process of urban construction. Firstly, the paper studies the 100m spatial distance between bus stations and urban parks entrance and divides them into the access points and connection points; constructs adjacency matrix according to the number of same bus lines and initially establishes the structure model of the public transportation network. Secondly, it extracts independent variable factors of public transportation network centrality model from the aspects of accessibility and connectivity, among which the three independent variable factors: closeness centrality, betweenness centrality and degree centrality which characterize accessibility quantitatively reflect the geographic conditions of urban parks in the transportation network. Clustering coefficient that characterizes connectivity quantitatively reflects the connection degree of bus connection points and the access points. Then, it constructs public transportation network centrality model through weight assignment of independent variable factors and based on this to quantitatively evaluate the bus accessibility of urban parks. At last, it proposes the strategy to properly plan bus stations and lines in public transportation centrality void areas and supplement urban parks in transportation centrality dense areas by using public transportation network centrality model in combination with the practical research on bus stations and lines and 10 built parks in Daoli District, Harbin, which aims to promote the spatial coupling relation between public transportation network and urban parks layout, improve the bus accessibility of urban parks and make it play a more important role with comprehensive benefit.
Key words:  landscape architecture  social network analysis  urban park  bus centricity model  accessibility

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