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中国国家公园特许制度的框架建构
吴承照,陈涵子
0
()
摘要:
国家公园特许经营的本质是社会资本方获得相关特许权利用国家公园的资源提供公共产品或服务。美国国家公园系统通过特许权合同授权个人、公司或其他实体为访客提供的“必需且适宜的”商业性服务便属于此类。“Concession”的原意是特许权,也指授权这种行为。特许经营是特许制度的组成部分而非全部。特许权合同、授权、许可证、租约、地役权契约等授权形式构成美国国家公园的资源利用制度。联合国开发计划署提出的自然保护地特许权包括许可证、租约、地役权、执照等形式。中国国家公园保护第一、公益至上,应建立科学的资源利用特许制度为资源保护管理提供制度保障。签订特许权合同、发放许可证(这2种形式在必要时附以租赁合同)、签订地役权合同为主要授权形式是符合我国国情的国家公园特许制度的基本框架。
关键词:  风景园林  国家公园  特许权  特许制度  资源利用
DOI:
基金项目:
The Framework of China National Park Concession System
WU Chengzhao,CHEN Hanzi
()
Abstract:
The essence of national park concession operation is that social parties obtain relevant concessions to use resources of national parks to provide public goods or services. The "necessary and appropriate" commercial visitor services within U.S. National Park System provided by individuals, corporations, or other entities through concession contracts belong to this category. The original meaning of "concession" is a special right or an action of granting. Concession operation is a part of concession system but not all. Authorization forms, such as concession contracts, authorizations, permits, leases and easement deeds, constitute the resource utilization system for U.S. National Parks. Concessions in protected natural areas proposed by UNDP include permits, leases, easements, licenses, etc. Conservation and public interests are the priority of China's national parks, and a scientific resource utilization concession system should be established to provide institutional guarantee for resource conservation and management. Signing concession contracts, issuing permits, and signing easement contracts as main forms of authorization (with leases if necessary to the first two forms) is the basic framework of China national park concession system in line with the national conditions.
Key words:  landscape architecture  national park  concession  concession system  resource utilization

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