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中古时期文人园林的观景模式变迁 ——从谢灵运、陶渊明到柳宗元
龚珍
0
()
摘要:
古典园林存在着2种主要的观景模式,其一是谢灵运为代表的“登高静观”,审美主体在登临高平位置后自上往下俯瞰,获得的是以片区单元形式来呈现的低分辨率图片式全景视野,偏重于自然景观的雄壮气势;另一类是陶渊明为代表的“低地行观”,因主体的移动而获得流动的视野和动态的景观,主体因更贴近于景物本身而能捕捉到景物高分辨率的细节,取得的是各个面向的身体美学与小尺度的优美景致。谢灵运与陶渊明式观景模式一前一后影响了古典园林中的观景及景观呈现。此二者主次关系的变换发生在中唐时期,柳宗元的“旷奥两宜”标志着贵族时代审美影响力的减弱,促成了园林结构内部景观要素的重组,并拉启了古典园林世俗化的“江南时代”的序幕。
关键词:  风景园林  文人园林  登高静观  低地行观  旷奥两宜
DOI:
基金项目:
Changes in Literati Gardens' Viewing Modes in the Middle Ages—From Xie Lingyun, Tao Yuanming to Liu Zongyuan
GONG Zhen
()
Abstract:
There were two main modes of viewing in Chinese classical garden. One was Xie Lingyun's "high perspective meditation". The aesthetic subject was standing at a high and flat place, overlooking from the top down. The low-resolution picture-type panoramic view presented in the form emphasized the majestic momentum of the natural landscape; the other was the "low-land view" represented by Tao Yuanming. when the subject moved he obtained a flowing field of vision and a dynamic landscape, so the subject could be closer to the scene itself, and capture the high-resolution details of the scene, and then obtained the body aesthetics and small-scale beautiful scenery in all aspects. Xie Lingyun's and Tao Yuanming's viewing modes had affected the viewing and landscape presentation in classical gardens. The change of the primary and secondary relationship between the two occurred in the middle Tang Dynasty. Liu Zongyuan's "KuangAo Liang Yi" (suiting both vastness and deepness) marked the weakening of the aesthetic influence of the aristocratic era, promoted the reorganization of the landscape elements within the garden structure, and opened up the secularity of classical gardens, which was aprelude to the "Jiangnan Times".
Key words:  landscape architecture  literati garden  high perspective meditation  lowland view  KuangAo Liang Yi (suiting both vastness and deepness)

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