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基于建设用地和人口标准的中国公园 配置演化特征分析
刘志强,张莹,王俊帝,洪亘伟
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()
摘要:
公园是城市中最优质的公共开放空间和最普惠的民生福祉,科学研判人地影响下公园的配置特征,可为新时代推进中国“公园-用地-人口”统筹优化提供科学依据。以中国建制市为研究单元,基于建设用地和人口两大视角,从总量、格局、个体3个层次,探究1981—2016年全国与不同用地、人口结构城市公园配置的演化特征。研究表明:1)我国公园配置由“提升密度”到“提升规模”,整体呈“以地推动、与人脱节”的规律,其中公园率具有较好发展趋势,人均公园面积高速增长但不可持续;2)各结构城市差异化配置明显,高人均用地水平、低密度、小城市普遍趋于“高密度、小规模”配置公园;低人均用地水平、高密度、特大城市人均公园面积长期处于不理想状态。基于人地双标准对公园配置进行了多维度、长时期、大范围的考察与分析,以期为系统完善公园配置“因地因人”导向规划提供参考。
关键词:  风景园林  公园  配置  建设用地  人口  中国
DOI:
基金项目:
Analysis of Evolution Characteristics of Chinese Park Allocation Based on Construction Land and Population Standards
LIU Zhiqiang,ZHANG Ying,WANG Jundi,HONG Genwei
()
Abstract:
Park is the best public open space in city and the most beneficial people's livelihood. Scientific research on the relationship between park allocation and land use development and population change can provide scientific support for promoting the overall optimization of "park-land-population" in the new era. Taking the established cities in mainland China as the research unit, based on the two perspective of land and population, this paper probes into the evolution characteristics of the allocation of urban parks with different land use and population structure from 1981 to 2016 from the three levels of total amount, pattern and individual. Studies show that: 1) China's park evolution changed from "promoting density" to "promoting scale", and the rule was "driven by land and disconnected from people", among which, the park rate has a good development trend, but the rapid growth of per capita park is not sustainable. 2) Cities with different structures have obvious differentiated allocation, among which, cities with a small population generally tend to allocate park in a "high-density and small-scale" way. The per capita park area in high per capita construction land level and large cities is not ideal for a long time. Based on the land-human standards, this paper examines and analyzes the park allocation in a multi-dimensional, long-term and large-scale manner, in order to provide a reference for the systematic improvement of the park allocation depending on land development and people in the new era.
Key words:  landscape architecture  park  allocation  construction land  population  China

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