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美国风景园林规划设计典型范例 研究——奥姆斯特德及其比特摩尔庄园作品
潘剑彬,朱战强,付喜娥,丘林润,象伟宁*
0
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摘要:
比特摩尔庄园是美国“风景园林之父”奥姆斯特德的2个最具代表性的设计作品之一。系统分析了庄园营造的专业理论、实践及社会背景、建筑与山水格局特征、道路系统及植物景观特色,以及项目中首次提出并付诸实践的极具代表性的“自维持”森林经营理念。研究认为:在本案例中,风景园林在面对社会、经济及生态等多因素影响的景观规划实践中,可以成功统领各相关专业并在其中发挥主导作用;注重多重价值的、“自维持”森林经营理念在遍及美国国土的实践中证实了当初的前瞻性考量。该案例不仅影响和决定120多年来美国风景园林、森林经营等专业实践的内涵和走向,也将对中国的城乡生态环境修复与保育实践、生态智慧研究提供了有价值的借鉴。
关键词:  风景园林;自维持;比特摩尔庄园  奥姆斯特德
DOI:
基金项目:
Case Study on the Planning and Design of Landscape Architecture in United States of America—Olmsted and His Design of Biltmore Estate
PAN Jianbin,ZHU Zhanqiang,FU Xie,QIU Linrun,XIANG Weining
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Abstract:
The Biltmore Estate project is one of Olmsted's two most representative landscape design works, who was considered "the father of American landscape architecture". In this paper, it was given a systematic analysis about the background of society, professional theory and practice about this Estate's construction; meanwhile, the characteristics of building and landscape pattern, the road system and planting landscape were clarified; the representative idea about "self-sustaining" forestry management was presented, which was first time that this theory was postulated and put into the practice of this project. the study shows that the landscape architecture can command various professions and play a leading role when it faces the practice about planning of landscape, even though which could be influenced by the factor of society, economy and ecology; the "self-sustaining" and multiple valued forestry management confirmed it's prospective consideration by means of the practice all over the mainland of United States. This case gives a significant impact to American practice of landscape architecture and forestry management in the past hundreds years. Nowadays, it would have an influence to the practice of restoration and conservation of urban and rural ecological environment, the study of ecological wisdom in the future, in China.
Key words:  landscape architecture  self-sustaining  Biltmore Estate  Olmsted

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